FL-EUR recommends the following literature to scholars and practitioners interested in FL-EUR's first working field 'Empowerment and Protection of Vulnerable Adults'. Suggestions for literature to be added to this list are welcome and can be emailed to FL-EUR's secretary (details can be found under 'contact').


  • E. Alofs & W. Schrama (eds.), Elderly Care and Upwards solidarity, Intersentia 2020. 
  • R. Frimston, A. Ruck Keene, C. van Overdijk & A.D. Ward (eds.), The International Protection of Adults, Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press 2015. 
  • W. Martin, S. Michalowski, J. Stavert, A. Ward, A. Ruck Keene, C. Caughey, A. Hempsey & R. McGregor, The Essex Autonomy Project. Three Jurisdictions Report. Towards Compliance with CRPD Art. 12 in Capacity/Incapacity legislation across the UK, Essex: University of Essex 2016, accessible via:
  • A.D. Ward, Enabling Citizens to Plan for Incapacity. A review of follow-up action taken by member states of the Council of Europe to Recommendation CM/Rec(2009)11 on principles concerning continuing powers of attorney and advance directives for incapacity, Strasbourg: Council of Europe 2018, accessible via:


  • A. Arstein-Kerslake & E. Flynn, ‘The General Comment on Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: a roadmap for equality before the law’, The International Journal of Human Rights 2016 vol 20, no. 4, pp. 471-491. 
  • C. de Bhailís & E. Flynn, ‘Recognising legal capacity: commentary and analysis of Article 12 CRPD’, International Journal of Law in Context 2017 vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 6-21. 
  • E. Flynn & A. Arstein-Kerslake, ‘The Support Model of Legal Capacity: Fact, Fiction, or Fantasy?’, Berkeley Journal of International Law 2014 vol. 32, no. 1. 
  • P. Gooding, ‘Navigating the ‘Flashing Amber Lights’ of the Right to Legal Capacity in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Responding to Major Concerns’, Human Rights Law Review 2015, vol. 15, pp. 45-71. 
  • A. Ruck Keene & A.D. Ward, ‘With and Without “Best Interests”: the Mental Capacity Act 2005, the Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 and Constructing Decisions’, International Journal of Mental health and Capacity Law 2016, pp. 17-37, open access published and accessible via:
  • L. Series & A. Nilsson, ‘Article 12: Equal Recognition Before the Law”, in: I. Bantekas, M.A. Stein, & D. Anastasiou (eds.), The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. A Commentary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.  
  • L. Series, ‘Relationships, autonomy and legal capacity: Mental capacity and support paradigms’, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 2015 vol. 40, pp. 80-91. 
  • H.N. Stelma-Roorda, C. Blankman & M.V. Antokolskaia, ‘A changing paradigm of protection of vulnerable adults and its implications for the Netherlands, Family & Law 2019, accessible via:

Official documents